The AMS scale has been translated into 31 languages. The majority of the translations are accessible via pdf download from the links below. Translations have usually been undertaken using recognised translation methodology and cultural and linguistic equivalence can be assumed. However, ZEG Berlin was not party to the translation work and therefore cannot gaurantee its equivalence.
The original German AMS scale was first translated and culturally adapted into English.7 Most, but not all, of the subsequent translations were based on recommendations for the translation of HRQoL measures 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 using the English version as the source language8. We recommend undertaking a six-step process to ensure AMS questionnaires are appropriately translated: forward translations (at least two independent translators), a consensus meeting with the coordinator of the translation, a check by a bilingual expert in the application field of the scale to evaluate the scientific correctness of the wording, a backward translation, a consensus meeting among the translators with the coordinator, and finally a pretest with a few persons the test is designed for (also called cognitive debriefing).
International versions of the AMS were first published in 200315. The publication includes a discussion among the authors of different language versions of the AMS on differing translation methodology. Most of the translations used recommended processes, however, a few deviated from the six-step system; specific reasons for deviation are not discussed in the review. However, potential users of these scales (Flemish, Croatian, Russian language) should be encouraged to complete the translation.
- Belgium-Flemish version
- Brazilian version (not available here)
- Bulgarian version
- Chilean version (not available here)
- Chinese version (not available here)
- Croatian version
- Danish version
- Dutch version
- English version
- Finnish version
- French version
- German version
- Hungarian version
- Indonesian version
- Italian version
- Japanese version
- Korean version
- Latvian version
- Lebanon-Arabic version
- Malay version (not available here)
- Mongolian version
- Nigerian (Yoruba) version
- Norwegian version
- Polish version
- Portuguese version
- Romanian version
- Russian version
- Slovenian version
- Spanish version
- Swedish version
- Taiwanese version
- Thai version
- Turkish version
Researchers interested in applying the AMS scale in their research can download the appropriate language version for free and use it without formal permission from the copyright holder. As a courtsey, please let us know that you are using the scale. In return, any new information or developments concerning the AMS will be made available here.
7. Heinemann LAJ, Saad F, Thiele K, Wood-Dauphinee S. The Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) rating scale. Cultural and linguistic validation into English. The Aging Male 2001 ; 3:14-22.
8.Herdman M, Fox-Rushby J, Badia X. A model of equivalence in the cultural adaptation of HRQOL instruments: the universalist approach. Qual Life Res 1998; 7: 323-35.
9. Anonymous. Trust introduces new translation criteria. Medical Outcomes Trust Bulletin 1997; 5:2-4.
10. Aaronson NK, Acquadro C, Alonso J et al. International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) project. Quality of Life Research 1992;1:349-351.
11.Acquadro C, Jambon B, Ellis D, Marquis P. Languages and translation issues. Quality of Life and Pharmaco-Econonomics in Clinical Trials, B. Spilker Editor. 2nd Edition;1996: 575-585.
12. Brislin RW. Backtranslation for Cross-Cultural Research. J Cross-Cultural Psychology 1970;1(3):185-216.
13. Brislin RW. Questionnaire Working and Translation. In: Lonner WJ, Thorndike RM (Eds). Cultural Research Methods. John Wiley, New York, 1973:32-58.
14. Brislin RW. The Working and Translation of Research Instruments. In: Lonner WJ, Berry JW (Eds). Field Methods in Cross-Cultural Research. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, 1968:137-164.
15. Heinemann LAJ, Saad F, Zimmermann T, Novak A, Myon E, Badia X, Potthoff P, T’Sjoen G, Pöllänen P, Goncharow NP, Kim S, Giroudet C. The Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale: update and compilation of international versions. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003;1:15 (1 May 2003).